How to cultivate and maintain children's interests in chess: a reflection on the experience of the Polgar sisters

如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图1)

《镜花缘》是清代文人李汝珍创作的长篇小说象棋残局。它以纵横驰骋的想象、诙谐幽默的语言营造了一个千奇百怪的域外世界,带有浓厚的神话色彩与浪漫情怀。该作品被鲁迅誉为“与万宝全书相邻比”的奇书,是中小学新课标必读名著。如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图2)

作者:李汝珍  演播:白云出岫

01 女魁星北斗垂景象 老王母西池赐芳筵02 发正言花仙顺时令 定罚约月姊助风狂03 徐英公传檄起义兵 骆主簿修书寄良友04 吟雪诗暖阁赌酒 挥醉笔上苑催花05 俏宫娥戏夸金盏草 武太后怒贬牡丹花06 众宰承宣游上苑 百花获谴降红尘07 小才女月下论文科 老书生梦中闻善果

08 弃嚣尘结伴游寰海 觅胜迹穷踪越远山

如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣——对波尔加姐妹经历的思考

如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图3)

09 服肉芝延年益寿 食朱草入圣超凡

The Polgar sisters

10 诛大虫佳人施药箭 搏奇鸟壮士奋空拳11 观雅化闲游君子邦 慕仁风误入良臣府12 双宰辅畅谈俗弊 两书生敬服良箴

13 美人入海遭罗网 儒士登山失路途

波尔加姐妹

 

14 谈寿夭道经聂耳 论穷通路出无肠

15 喜相逢师生谈故旧 巧遇合宾主结新亲

16 紫衣女殷勤问字 白发翁傲慢谈文

How to cultivate children into geniuses? Psychologist and behaviorist John B. Watson proposed that he was able to cultivate any healthy infant into any type of specialist he wanted according to his will. 

17 因字声粗谈切韵 闻雁唳细问来宾

18 辟清谈幼女讲羲经 发至论书生尊孟子

19 受女辱潜逃黑齿邦 观民风联步小人国

如何把孩子培养成天才? 心理学家和行为学家约翰·沃森提出,他可以根据自己的意愿,将任何健康的婴儿培养成他想要的任何类型的专家。

20 丹桂岩山鸡舞镜 碧梧岭孔雀开屏

21 逢恶兽唐生被难 施神枪魏女解围

22 遇白民儒士听奇文 观药兽武夫发妙论

如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图4)

23 说酸话酒保咬文 讲迂谈腐儒嚼字

He theorized that it is important to push children in their early years with harsh measures, and he believed that providing children with too much love and affection is unnecessary. He employed his theory in educating his own children, but unfortunately, it was proved to be a miserable failure – his children all suffered from serious psychological issues and attempted suicide later in their lives.

24 唐探花酒楼闻善政 徐公子茶肆叙衷情

他认为,在孩子还小的时候,对他们采取严厉的管教措施是很重要的,并且他认为没有必要在孩子身上投入太多的爱和感情。他将自己的理论用于教育自己的孩子,但不幸的是,这被证明是一个悲惨的失败——他的孩子长大后都遭受了严重的心理问题,并曾试图自杀。

如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图5)

Watson and his children

沃森和他的孩子们

However, the Hungarian chess teacher and educational psychologist Laszlo Polgar was inspired by Watson's theory, and he also conducted such experiment on his own daughters. 

然而,匈牙利国际象棋老师、教育心理学家拉斯洛·波尔加受到了沃森理论的启发,并也在自己的女儿身上做了这样的实验。

如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图6)

Laszlo Polgar

拉斯洛·波尔加

He agrees on Watson's idea that it is important to push children as early as possible, yet he believes that sufficient love and care are also essential for children’s development. More significantly, he proposes that it is crucial for children to maintain their interests and motivations in a specific area. As it turns out, he successfully cultivated his three daughters into chess geniuses. They not only worked hard on chess, but also in the same time enjoyed chess. How did Laszlo manage to do it?

 

他认可沃森的部分看法,即尽可能早地对孩子进行严格的教育非常重要,但他认为足够的爱和关心对孩子的发展也是必不可少的。更重要的是,他提出,孩子在他们擅长的领域的兴趣和动机至关重要。事实证明,他成功地把他的三个女儿都培养成了国际象棋天才。她们不仅下功夫认真钻研国际象棋,同时也热爱国际象棋。拉斯洛是怎么做到的?

如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图7)

 The Polgar sisters

波尔加姐妹

25 越危垣潜出淑士关 登曲岸闲游两面国

 

1How to cultivate children's interests in chess 如何培养孩子对国际象棋的兴趣Rather than directly choosing fields for his daughters to study, Laszlo first let his daughters to freely pick the things they liked to do and observed their behaviors. One day, he found that his eldest daughter Susan Polgar discovered a chess set from the drawer. She immediately put aside all her toys and began to study the chess set quietly. Laszlo felt excited, as he knew that Susan probably started to possess interests in chess. 
拉斯洛没有直接为女儿们选择学习领域,而是首先让女儿们自由选择她们喜欢做的事情,并观察她们的行为。一天,他看到长女苏珊·波尔加从抽屉里发现了一副国际象棋。她立刻把所有的玩具放在了一边,开始安静地研究那副国际象棋。拉斯洛感到很兴奋,因为他知道苏珊可能开始对国际象棋产生兴趣了。
如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图8) Susan at the age of 4
4岁时的苏珊
Next, rather than directly inculcating all of the chess knowledge in Susan's mind, Laszlo allowed Susan to observe chess pieces and the chessboard repeatedly. This cultivated Susan's curiosity in chess, as Susan could not wait to learn how to play chess. Then, Laszlo gradually taught Susan the chess rules, and took her to his chess club to observe him playing chess. This further triggered Susan’s desire to explore chess more deeply. 接下来,拉斯洛并没有直接向苏珊灌输所有的国际象棋知识,而是先让苏珊反复观察棋子和棋盘。这培养了苏珊对国际象棋的好奇心,因为她已经迫不及待地想要学习如何下棋了。然后,拉斯洛逐步教苏珊下棋的规则,并把她带到了他的国际象棋俱乐部看他下棋。这进一步激发了苏珊更深入地探索国际象棋的欲望。 如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图9) Susan in the tournament
比赛中的苏珊
Laszlo's way to cultivate the interests of his younger daughters Sofia and Judit in chess was also interesting and instructive. He kept Susan studying chess inside a room for hours and kept the door locked. Sofia and Judit was curious about what their sister was doing in the room. Laszlo told them mysteriously that only the one who knew how to play chess could enter the room. In this way, Laszlo successfully triggered their interests in chess and guided them to the world of chess. 拉斯洛培养女儿索菲亚和朱迪特对国际象棋的兴趣的方法也十分有趣,并且具有教育意义。他让苏珊在一个房间里学习几个小时的国际象棋,并把门锁上。索菲亚和朱迪特很好奇她们的姐姐在房间里做什么。拉斯洛神秘地告诉她们,只有会下棋的人才能进入那个房间。就这样,拉斯洛成功地激发了她们对国际象棋的兴趣,并带领她们进入了国际象棋的世界。 如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图10)The Polgar sisters studying chess with their father
波尔加姐妹和父亲一起学习国际象棋
Probably inspired by her father's approaches, the youngest daughter, grandmaster Judit Polgar also developed her unique chess teaching method for children. Her method includes setting a Chess Playground for preschool kids to hop and jump in the squares, and in the same time let the kids mimic the movements of chess pieces, so that they can have a better understanding of the chessboard and the chess pieces. In this way, children can not only learn about chess more effectively, but also develop passions for chess as they have fun playing in the Chess Playground. 也许是受到父亲的启发,小女儿、特级大师朱迪特•波尔加也开发出了她独特的对于儿童的国际象棋教学方法。她的方法包括为学龄前儿童设置一个国际象棋游乐场,让他们在格子中跳跃,同时让孩子们模仿棋子的走法,这能让他们更好地认识棋盘和棋子。用这种方式,孩子们不仅可以更有效地学习国际象棋,还可以通过在国际象棋游乐场上快乐地玩耍嬉戏培养他们对国际象棋的热情。
如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图11)Judit's Chess Playground
朱迪特设计的国际象棋游乐场
Indeed, a lot of parents these days are anxious to their children's chess education. They expect their children to learn about chess and improve as quickly as possible. But this might be counteractive to children's development in chess. In fact, many chess players played excellently when they were young, but as their parents pushed them too hard and did not find suitable training approaches for them, they never possessed interests in chess, and they were unwilling to put more efforts in chess. Therefore, forcing and pushing children in chess too much is not beneficial for their development in the long run, but rather, parents may consider employing similar tricks as did Laszlo to cultivate their children's interests in chess and guide them to explore chess step by step. Parents may also try innovative teaching approaches to make chess more appealing to children. 的确,最近很多家长对子女的国际象棋教育感到焦虑。他们希望自己的孩子在短时间内学会国际象棋并取得突飞猛进。但这有可能对孩子在国际象棋上的发展产生相反的作用。事实上,很多棋手在小的时候棋下得都非常好,但是由于父母把他们逼得太紧,并且没有找到合适的训练方法,他们对国际象棋从来就没有过兴趣,也不愿意在国际象棋上付出更多的努力。因此,在棋上过多地强迫孩子以及给他们施加过多压力不利于他们长期的发展。家长可以考虑采用拉斯洛的方法培养孩子对国际象棋的兴趣,引导孩子逐步地探索象棋。家长也可以尝试创新的教学方法,使国际象棋对孩子更有吸引力。2How to maintain children's interests in chess 如何保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣  Though Laszlo managed to turn his daughters into chess geniuses, Laszlo's pedagogical method was controversial at that time. As Judit recollected, people all possessed the impression that Laszlo was destroying his daughters – they had to focus so intensively on chess all day and they had no childhood. Indeed, children can easily get bored and feel tired if they spend all the time on one field and do similar tasks repeatedly. 
尽管拉斯洛成功地把他的女儿们培养成了国际象棋天才,但拉斯洛的教育方法在当时极具争议性。朱迪特回忆说,人们对她们都有这样一种印象,认为拉斯洛正在摧毁他的女儿们——她们不得不整天集中精力下棋,她们没有童年。的确,如果孩子们把所有的时间都花在一个领域上,重复完成相似的任务,他们很容易感到无聊和疲倦。
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如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图13)

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如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣:对波尔加姐妹经历的思考听书《镜花缘》合集(共100集) 象棋残局(图14)