【中华文化遗产魅力恒久】Chinese Chess 中国象棋象棋,开局的五种禁忌 象棋技巧(图1)

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【中华文化遗产魅力恒久】Chinese Chess 中国象棋象棋,开局的五种禁忌 象棋技巧(图2)

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Chinese Chess

篇      目:中国象棋

象棋是中国人发明的一种棋类游戏,棋牌游戏平台上面的此游戏的受欢迎度是非常高的。象棋具有几千年的历史,它有64个格,

对应的是易经的八八六十四卦,其中黑格子和白格子以及黑棋子和白棋子分别对应的是阴阳。开局可以说是游戏胜利的开始,如果说玩家开局开的不够好,那么游戏就是没有胜算的,那么开局有哪五种禁忌呢?

'Oldest' Strategy Board Game

Still Draws Players Everywhere

“最古老的”棋盘策略游戏仍吸引着全世界的玩家

Written by Zhang Ciyun

作      者:张慈贇

往期音频请至喜马拉雅收听

'Oldest' Strategy Board Game

Still Draws Players Everywhere

对于象棋游戏第一个禁忌就是车跑的太慢,正所谓兵贵神速,其中车是游戏的主力,一车主动,马炮便可以呼应,那么就可以很大程度上震慑对手。因此开局阶段一定要占据主要的要点通道,要让车跑的快速。第二个禁忌是绊自己的马腿。马是游戏中的厉害的棋子,它具有保护小兵的防守作用,而且也可以进攻,所以开局一定要活跃自己的马路,让自己的马路通畅。第三个禁忌,轻易就发炮,炮也是游戏的强棋子,它的射程较远,玩家要将炮隐蔽起来,监视敌军的动向,让炮发挥出巨大的威力来。

“最古老的”棋盘策略游戏仍吸引着全世界的玩家

另外,象棋第四个禁忌是帅暴露,由于帅是全军的主力,如果说帅倒了,那么游戏就失败了。在开局阶段火力都是较猛的,因此一定要保护好帅,让帅不被暴露。第五个禁忌,棋子散乱不堪。棋子单个走自然是有一定的威力的,但是如果说棋子能够联合起来自然是威力更大的,因此开局棋子应该要整齐联合防守。

【中华文化遗产魅力恒久】Chinese Chess 中国象棋象棋,开局的五种禁忌 象棋技巧(图3)

声明:文章内容由译文出版社授权,炎博文化翻译

其实玩象棋游戏就好像是真正的布局打仗一样,玩家一定要做到心中有数,让每一个棋子都发挥出其巨大的威力,这样才能够让整个战役打的漂亮,自己有更大的游戏胜算。此外,游戏中玩家要注意不要着急,要稳稳当当的走棋,如此才会分析清晰。

It's an ever-present scene in China. As you are strolling down a quiet alley, wandering in a public park or passing a private courtyard with its door open, you may very likely spot people playing a kind of board game on a table, a bench or just on the ground.

在中国,有一个景象很常见,当你闲庭信步在安静的小巷,悠然漫步在公园中,或者路过一个开着门的私人院子时,你可以能会发现人们在桌子上、长椅上或者地面上玩一种棋盘游戏。

象棋是中国人发明的一种棋类游戏,棋牌游戏平台上面的此游戏的受欢迎度是非常高的。象棋具有几千年的历史,它有64个格,对应的是易经的八八六十四卦,其中黑格子和白格子以及黑棋子和白棋子分别对应的是阴阳。开局可以说是游戏胜利的开始,如果说玩家开局开的不够好,那么游戏就是没有胜算的,那么开局有哪五种禁忌呢?

And more often than not, there will be a group of onlookers hovering over the two players, offering free advice and commenting, debating or arguing on every move the players make.

对于象棋游戏第一个禁忌就是车跑的太慢,正所谓兵贵神速,其中车是游戏的主力,一车主动,马炮便可以呼应,那么就可以很大程度上震慑对手。因此开局阶段一定要占据主要的要点通道,要让车跑的快速。第二个禁忌是绊自己的马腿。马是游戏中的厉害的棋子,它具有保护小兵的防守作用,而且也可以进攻,所以开局一定要活跃自己的马路,让自己的马路通畅。第三个禁忌,轻易就发炮,炮也是游戏的强棋子,它的射程较远,玩家要将炮隐蔽起来,监视敌军的动向,让炮发挥出巨大的威力来。

而更多的时候,会有一群围观者,为两位棋手走的每一步棋争论、评价、辩论或给予一些随意的建议。

Here, you can bet your money on the presumption that the game being played is none other than Xiangqi or Chinese Chess, the most popular and more-than-2,000-year-old board game in the country.

另外,象棋第四个禁忌是帅暴露,由于帅是全军的主力,如果说帅倒了,那么游戏就失败了。在开局阶段火力都是较猛的,因此一定要保护好帅,让帅不被暴露。第五个禁忌,棋子散乱不堪。棋子单个走自然是有一定的威力的,但是如果说棋子能够联合起来自然是威力更大的,因此开局棋子应该要整齐联合防守。

其实玩象棋游戏就好像是真正的布局打仗一样,玩家一定要做到心中有数,让每一个棋子都发挥出其巨大的威力,这样才能够让整个战役打的漂亮,自己有更大的游戏胜算。此外,游戏中玩家要注意不要着急,要稳稳当当的走棋,如此才会分析清晰。

此时,你完全可以打赌,他们玩的游戏不是别的,一定是象棋,在中国流行了两千余年。

【中华文化遗产魅力恒久】Chinese Chess 中国象棋象棋,开局的五种禁忌 象棋技巧(图4)【中华文化遗产魅力恒久】Chinese Chess 中国象棋象棋,开局的五种禁忌 象棋技巧(图5)

围观下象棋

(图片来自网络)

Xiangqi, which means literally in Chinese as "elephant game" or "image game," is a two-player ancient strategy board game.

所谓“象棋”,中文的字面意思可以理解为“大象游戏”或者“图像游戏”,是一种古老的双人棋盘策略游戏。

The game was first mentioned in Chu Ci or Songs of Chu, an anthology of Chinese poetry during the 4th century BC.

这种游戏最早出现在公元前4世纪的中国诗集《楚辞》中象棋技巧

It has always been contentious about the origin of Xiangqi or chess in general in the world.

象棋的起源在世界上一直存在争议。

Some scholars and historians believe the Chinese Chess is a variant of International Chess invented by the Indians in the 6th Century, but others posit just the opposite.

一些学者和历史学家认为,中国象棋是印度在6世纪发明的国际象棋的变体,但其他人则持相反的看法。

For instance, world-renowned British Sinologist Joseph Needham (1900-1995) believed that divination could be a common origin of various games in the world, but the developments started from Chinese divination techniques. So, the Indian Chess was directly descended from a divinatory game in China.

例如,世界著名的英国汉学家李约瑟(1900—1995)认为占卜可能是世界上各种游戏的共同起源,但这种发展是来源于中国的占卜技术。因此,印度象棋是中国占卜游戏的直接产物。

Also, Pavle Bidev (1912-1988), a Yugoslav philosopher, historian, orientalist as well as a formidable chess player, deduced that it was the Chinese game of chess that was at the beginning of all chess developments in the world.

此外,南斯拉夫哲学家、历史学家、东方学家、棋手帕夫尔拜多夫(1912—1988)认为,中国象棋是世界上所有棋类游戏的源头。

Meanwhile, David H. Li, an author on Chinese history and chess claimed that Xiangqi was invented by Chinese General Han Xin in 203 BC.

同时,《中国历史与象棋》的作者李大伟称象棋是中国将军韩信在公元前203年发明的。

【中华文化遗产魅力恒久】Chinese Chess 中国象棋象棋,开局的五种禁忌 象棋技巧(图6)

象棋之祖韩信石碑

(图片来自网络)

In his book, The Genealogy of Chess, which won the Book of the Year 1998 award from the editors of GAMES Magazine, Li suggested that General Han had combined his game with some rules of an earlier game called Liubo and ancient Chinese military strategies.

在获得《游戏》杂志1998年度图书奖的《象棋谱系》一书中,李大伟提出,韩将军将这种游戏与早期一种名为“六博”的游戏和中国古代军事战略相结合。

Li even suggested that General Han's game, or Xiangqi, was later brought to Persia and India via the Silk Road and evolved into various forms of shatranj and chaturanga.

李甚至认为,韩将军的象棋后来通过丝绸之路被带到波斯和印度,并演变成各种形式的沙特兰兹(波斯象棋)和恰图兰卡(印度象棋)。

It was also introduced into China's neighboring countries, such as Korea and Japan, becoming the prototype of shogi and janggi. However, Li's theory has been frequently challenged by other scholars.

它也被引进到中国的邻国,如韩国和日本,成为日本将棋和韩国将棋的原型。然而,李的理论经常受到其他学者的质疑。

【中华文化遗产魅力恒久】Chinese Chess 中国象棋象棋,开局的五种禁忌 象棋技巧(图3)

声明:文章内容由译文出版社授权,炎博文化翻译

In fact, even the name of Xiangqi has different explanations. In Chinese, xiang means elephant and qi is chess.

事实上,就连象棋本身的名字都有不同的解释。在汉语中,“象”的意思是大象,“棋”的意思是棋。

【中华文化遗产魅力恒久】Chinese Chess 中国象棋象棋,开局的五种禁忌 象棋技巧(图8)

带有大象图案的象棋

(图片来自网络)

The involvement of elephant here is probably because at the beginning, the game pieces of Xiangqi were made of ivory or because elephants were drafted for military service in ancient times.

之所以在这里用“象”可能是因为最早象棋的棋子是用象牙做成的,也可能是因为古时大象在军队中被用来征战。

According to a Chinese legend, Xiangqi was once also related to the fruit orange.

据中国的传说,象棋也曾和橘子有关系。

It is said that eons ago, there was a farmer growing oranges in a place in today's Sichuan Province in southwest China.

据说,很久以前,在中国的西南部,今天的四川省,有一个农民在种桔子。

One day, when he was harvesting his fruit, the farmer found two unusually large oranges. He immediately brought them home.But after he cut open the over-sized oranges, he found two old men with long grey hairs and beards playing chess inside each of them.

一天,当他收割水果时,农夫发现了两个非常大的桔子。他立刻把他们带回家。当他切开这两个巨大的橘子后,他发现每个橘子里面都有两个留着长长的灰色头发和胡须的老者下棋。

One of the old men said that since their game of Xiangqi was suddenly interrupted by the farmer, they had to leave. Next moment, the four old men quickly ascended into the sky riding small dragons.

其中一位老人说,他们的象棋突然被农夫打断了,只好离开。紧接着,四位老人骑着小龙迅速升空。

Since then, Xiangqi has also been called the Orange Game.

从此,象棋也被称为“橘中弈”。

【中华文化遗产魅力恒久】Chinese Chess 中国象棋象棋,开局的五种禁忌 象棋技巧(图3)

声明:文章内容由译文出版社授权,炎博文化翻译

According to historical records, however, the modern Xiangqi did not take its initial shape until the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) and after two more sets of pieces were added to the game during the Song Dynasty (960-1279), it eventually became the game we see today.

据史料记载,现代象棋直到唐朝(公元618年—公元907年)才初具规模,宋代(960—1279)又增加了两套棋子,最终成为我们今天看到的象棋。

In modern Chinese Chess, there are 32 flat and circular game pieces made in two colors, usually black and red.

现今的中国象棋中有32个棋子,它们通常是扁圆形,颜色一般为黑和红。

【中华文化遗产魅力恒久】Chinese Chess 中国象棋象棋,开局的五种禁忌 象棋技巧(图10)

象棋

(图片来自网络)

Each side has one general, two advisors, two elephants, two horses, two chariots, two cannons and five pawns (for the black side) or five soldiers (for the red side). And each piece has an engraved Chinese character to identify its type.

红方以帅统仕、相及俥、傌、炮各二,兵五;黑方以将统士、象及车、马、炮各二,卒五,每个棋子上都刻了和棋子身份对应的汉字。

The game is played on a board nine lines wide and 10 lines long. In the middle of the 10-row field, there is a space running across the board and is marked Chuhe or the Chu River and Hanjie or the Han Border. It marks a visual division between the two sides, each with 4x8 squares.

象棋游戏在绘有九条竖线和十条横线相交组成的棋盘上进行,在十条横线中间,有一块空白横贯而过,标明楚河汉界,以此来标志对弈双方位于各自的地盘,每块地盘都是4*8个格子。

But unlike the Western or International Chess, the pieces of Xiangqi are not placed on the squares, but on the cross points. And the object of the game is to capture the enemy's general.

但象棋不同于西方或国际象棋,象棋的棋子不是放在方格上,而是放在交叉点上。而游戏的目的就是俘获对方的将军。

The rules of the game are rather simple, but the various strategies and moves involved are just too numerous to be counted.

游戏规则相当简单,但涉及到的各种策略和下法实在太多,无法统计。

That explains why Xiangqi is such a popular board game in China, loved by people from all walks of life, old or young.

这就解释了为什么象棋在中国是如此受欢迎的棋类游戏,老少皆爱之。

In the past decades, Chinese Chess has begun to interest players in other parts of the world and many countries and regions now have their Xiangqi leagues and clubs.

在过去的几十年里,中国象棋引起了世界各地棋手的兴趣,许多国家和地区现在都有中国象棋联赛和俱乐部。

The First World Xiangqi Championship took place in Singapore in 1990 and now it is held every two years.

第一届世界中国象棋锦标赛于1990年在新加坡举行,现在每两年举行一次。

Like many other games, Chinese Chess is now also played online, especially among young people. But most people in the country still love to play it in parks, st