如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣：对波尔加姐妹经历的思考关爱老人 传递爱心|哈尔滨铁道技师学院走进敬老院，开启温暖初冬 中国象棋
How to cultivate and maintain children's interests in chess: a reflection on the experience of the Polgar sisters如何培养和保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣——对波尔加姐妹经历的思考
The Polgar sisters
How to cultivate children into geniuses? Psychologist and behaviorist John B. Watson proposed that he was able to cultivate any healthy infant into any type of specialist he wanted according to his will.
He theorized that it is important to push children in their early years with harsh measures, and he believed that providing children with too much love and affection is unnecessary. He employed his theory in educating his own children, but unfortunately, it was proved to be a miserable failure – his children all suffered from serious psychological issues and attempted suicide later in their lives.
这里的老人，年纪最小的有60岁，最大的已有百岁高龄。面对这么多人的“来访”或“热闹”，有一些老人可能并不理解我们在做什么，只是坐在那里听着、看着、或只能看着...Watson and his children
However, the Hungarian chess teacher and educational psychologist Laszlo Polgar was inspired by Watson's theory, and he also conducted such experiment on his own daughters.
He agrees on Watson's idea that it is important to push children as early as possible, yet he believes that sufficient love and care are also essential for children’s development. More significantly, he proposes that it is crucial for children to maintain their interests and motivations in a specific area. As it turns out, he successfully cultivated his three daughters into chess geniuses. They not only worked hard on chess, but also in the same time enjoyed chess. How did Laszlo manage to do it?
The Polgar sisters
1How to cultivate children's interests in chess 如何培养孩子对国际象棋的兴趣Rather than directly choosing fields for his daughters to study, Laszlo first let his daughters to freely pick the things they liked to do and observed their behaviors. One day, he found that his eldest daughter Susan Polgar discovered a chess set from the drawer. She immediately put aside all her toys and began to study the chess set quietly. Laszlo felt excited, as he knew that Susan probably started to possess interests in chess.
Susan at the age of 4
Next, rather than directly inculcating all of the chess knowledge in Susan's mind, Laszlo allowed Susan to observe chess pieces and the chessboard repeatedly. This cultivated Susan's curiosity in chess, as Susan could not wait to learn how to play chess. Then, Laszlo gradually taught Susan the chess rules, and took her to his chess club to observe him playing chess. This further triggered Susan’s desire to explore chess more deeply. 接下来，拉斯洛并没有直接向苏珊灌输所有的国际象棋知识，而是先让苏珊反复观察棋子和棋盘。这培养了苏珊对国际象棋的好奇心，因为她已经迫不及待地想要学习如何下棋了。然后，拉斯洛逐步教苏珊下棋的规则，并把她带到了他的国际象棋俱乐部看他下棋。这进一步激发了苏珊更深入地探索国际象棋的欲望。 Susan in the tournament
Laszlo's way to cultivate the interests of his younger daughters Sofia and Judit in chess was also interesting and instructive. He kept Susan studying chess inside a room for hours and kept the door locked. Sofia and Judit was curious about what their sister was doing in the room. Laszlo told them mysteriously that only the one who knew how to play chess could enter the room. In this way, Laszlo successfully triggered their interests in chess and guided them to the world of chess. 拉斯洛培养女儿索菲亚和朱迪特对国际象棋的兴趣的方法也十分有趣，并且具有教育意义。他让苏珊在一个房间里学习几个小时的国际象棋，并把门锁上。索菲亚和朱迪特很好奇她们的姐姐在房间里做什么。拉斯洛神秘地告诉她们，只有会下棋的人才能进入那个房间。就这样，拉斯洛成功地激发了她们对国际象棋的兴趣，并带领她们进入了国际象棋的世界。 The Polgar sisters studying chess with their father
Probably inspired by her father's approaches, the youngest daughter, grandmaster Judit Polgar also developed her unique chess teaching method for children. Her method includes setting a Chess Playground for preschool kids to hop and jump in the squares, and in the same time let the kids mimic the movements of chess pieces, so that they can have a better understanding of the chessboard and the chess pieces. In this way, children can not only learn about chess more effectively, but also develop passions for chess as they have fun playing in the Chess Playground. 也许是受到父亲的启发，小女儿、特级大师朱迪特•波尔加也开发出了她独特的对于儿童的国际象棋教学方法。她的方法包括为学龄前儿童设置一个国际象棋游乐场，让他们在格子中跳跃，同时让孩子们模仿棋子的走法，这能让他们更好地认识棋盘和棋子。用这种方式，孩子们不仅可以更有效地学习国际象棋，还可以通过在国际象棋游乐场上快乐地玩耍嬉戏培养他们对国际象棋的热情。
Judit's Chess Playground
Indeed, a lot of parents these days are anxious to their children's chess education. They expect their children to learn about chess and improve as quickly as possible. But this might be counteractive to children's development in chess. In fact, many chess players played excellently when they were young, but as their parents pushed them too hard and did not find suitable training approaches for them, they never possessed interests in chess, and they were unwilling to put more efforts in chess. Therefore, forcing and pushing children in chess too much is not beneficial for their development in the long run, but rather, parents may consider employing similar tricks as did Laszlo to cultivate their children's interests in chess and guide them to explore chess step by step. Parents may also try innovative teaching approaches to make chess more appealing to children. 的确中国象棋，最近很多家长对子女的国际象棋教育感到焦虑。他们希望自己的孩子在短时间内学会国际象棋并取得突飞猛进。但这有可能对孩子在国际象棋上的发展产生相反的作用。事实上，很多棋手在小的时候棋下得都非常好，但是由于父母把他们逼得太紧，并且没有找到合适的训练方法，他们对国际象棋从来就没有过兴趣，也不愿意在国际象棋上付出更多的努力。因此，在棋上过多地强迫孩子以及给他们施加过多压力不利于他们长期的发展。家长可以考虑采用拉斯洛的方法培养孩子对国际象棋的兴趣，引导孩子逐步地探索象棋。家长也可以尝试创新的教学方法，使国际象棋对孩子更有吸引力。2How to maintain children's interests in chess 如何保持孩子对国际象棋的兴趣 Though Laszlo managed to turn his daughters into chess geniuses, Laszlo's pedagogical method was controversial at that time. As Judit recollected, people all possessed the impression that Laszlo was destroying his daughters – they had to focus so intensively on chess all day and they had no childhood. Indeed, children can easily get bored and feel tired if they spend all the time on one field and do similar tasks repeatedly.